Indian Mustard Varieties with Improved Oil and Seed Meal Quality
Mustard oil has very low amount of saturated fatty acids while palm oil, palmolein and coconut oil contain very high amount of saturated fatty acids (more than 50%). Even groundnut and cottonseed oil contain more than 20% saturated fatty acids. In other oils also it is around 10% or more, thus mustard oil remains superior to others. Excessive intake of saturated fatty acid causes narrowing of arteries, which leads to coronary heart disease so in this regard rapeseed mustard oil is regarded as safer to other oils. Mustard oil contains 70% of mono unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) while olive oil and groundnut oil contain about 70% and 50%, respectively. Other oils like corn oil, cottonseed oil, palm oil, palmolein oil, safflower oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil contain less than 50% of MUFA. However, coconut oil contains only 7.8% of MUFA. Mustard oil contains 15.2% of poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) while safflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil contain more than 50% of PUFA. Other oils like olive oil, palm oil and coconut oil contain less than 10% of PUFA. The benefits of mustard oil can be associated with specific fatty acids (mainly higher content of MUFA and desirable concentration of linoleic and linolenic acid) and possible also with other components, in the oil rather than with MUFA only. In the PUFA group the linoleic acid (n-6) and alpha linolenic acids (n – 3) are also important. A balance ratio of n-6 : n-3 is effective in reducing the risk of heart diseases and this ratio may be met through mustard oil, however, not by other vegetable oils. Erucic acid, one of the PUFA is predominant in Indian cultivars, which is more than 40% of the total fatty acids (<2 % is internationally accepted). The fatty acid profile of various edible oils prevalent in the market has been given in table 1.
Rapeseed oil or its de-oiled cake does not command a premium price in the international market because of the fact that Indian Brassica cultivars do not meet global standards. As per international standards, or “Canola” quality, seed oil must have less than 2% erucic acid and possess less than 30 micromoles of glucosinolate for every gram of oil free cake. As mentioned above, in mustard oil, erucic acid, one of the Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) is predominant in Indian cultivars, which is more than 40% of the total fatty acids (<2 % is internationally accepted). The excessive intake of erucic acid leads to diseases like myocardial fibrosis in adults and lipidopsis in children, thereby, adversely affecting the human health. Another major byproduct of mustard seed is de-oiled cake which is rich in proteins and minerals. It has balanced amino acids and vitamin E and is mainly used as animal feed, however, it also contains high amount of sulphur containing glycosides compounds (glucosinolates) that affect animal productivity. The ingestion of large amounts of glucosinolates containing feeds leads to nutritional disorders and toxicity in human beings as well as in animals especially in non-ruminants. The toxicity due to this substance is responsible for goiter, liver damage, increased liver weight, reduced body weight and food intake in farm animals ultimately leading to low productivity.
The presence of high erucic acid in the seed oil (40-55%) and high glucosinolates (80-160 mm/g) in the oil free meal restricts the global utilization of Indian mustard oil and cake, respectively. Failing to meet the above requirements, Indian rapeseed mustard varieties have limited export market. To address the local and international oil and seed oil cake demand, varieties of Indian mustard meeting the International quality requirement are to be made available. In India the work on quality particularly erucic acid and glucosinolates was initiated under the network project established by the ICAR in 1997. IARI has the pride of being the first public sector Institution in the country to breed the first low erucic acid (<2%) or ‘0’ erucic acid variety of Indian mustard popularly known as Pusa Karishma in 2005 and later on double low variety Pusa Double Zero Mustard 31 in 2016.
Pusa Double Zero Mustard 31: It is the first double zero mustard variety of Indian mustard in the country. The variety has been released for North Western Plain Zone. Its average seed yield is 23.2 q/ha. It is a yellow seeded variety with 41.0% oil content. It matures in 142 days.
At present ten Indian mustard quality varieties have been developed in India which are in public domain, the details of these varieties are given in table below:
To encourage the farmers taking up the commercial production of low erucic acid (erucic acid less than 2%) and double low varieties (erucic acid <2% and glucosinolates <30 ppm), policy supportis required. Total input cost in mustard is generally Rs. 30000-35000 per hectare and additional cost is incurred for maintaining quality of the produce of quality mustard varieties. At the common average seed yield of 15 q/ha, it will be in the interest of farmers and consumers to enhance the minimum support price (MSP) of quality varieties to meet out the yield compensation in comparison to conventional varieties alongwith its maintenance cost as quality product. This premium will attract the farmers towards cultivation of quality mustard varieties and the area under quality mustard varieties developed by IARI, New Delhi and PAU, Ludhiana will increase. With the ample production of good quality mustard, availability of low erucic acid oil will be more and consumers will be benefitted with indigenously produced quality mustard oil on reasonable price. Likewise, India is exporting huge quantity of mustard de-oiled cake but due to high glucosinolates, the mustard cake is being exported in developing countries like Bangladesh @ Rs. 20 per kg. No developed country takes the mustard cake from India. The cultivation of double low varieties will lead to production of good quality de-oiled cake which will fetch good price in the International market leading to enhanced income of the farmers.